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Academic Honesty Requires that You Document All Your Sources

In-Text Parenthetical Citations

(Author or Author-Date)*

 

In-text parenthetical citations must be keyed to an alphabetized list of full references at the end of the paper.

American Political Science Association (APSA)

American Psychological Association (APA)

American Sociological Association (ASA)

Modern Language Association (MLA Style)

 

American Political Science Association (APSA)

     This formatting style is used by the American Political Science Review and other journals sponsored by APSA. It provides the author’s surname and the publication date in parenthesis and an alphabetical list of full references on a separate sheet at the end of the paper. For model citations that show the preferred sequence of citation elements and punctuation, see the latest issue of the journal (some articles are archived on line); for unusual items, consult examples of the Chicago Manual of Style’s in-text author-date citations.

Online help with APSA formatting is available in the Writer’s Handbook at the University of Wisconsin Writing Center.

 

American Psychological Association (APA)

     APA style is probably the best known format for author-date citations embedded in the text of a paper. It provides the author’s surname and the publication date in parenthesis and an alphabetized list of full references on a separate sheet at the end of the paper. The Publication Manual of the APA, 5th edition (2001), is the best resource for citation models and guidance about punctuation and the sequence of citation elements. It includes clear guidelines for citing many types of electronic sources. Excellent guidance about using APA is also available in the handbook for First-Year English.

Online help with APA citations is available through many sites, including the following:

 
 

American Sociological Association (ASA)

    

     This variation on author-date citation formats is the official style of the various journals published by the ASA. It provides the author’s surname and the publication date in parenthesis and an alphabetized list of full references in a separate section at the end of the paper. You can derive the basics of the style by examining the opening pages of an ASA journal, for example American Sociological Review (its flagship journal) or Contemporary Sociology. Student members of ASA can access a style guide through the ASA student section website.  

       

Online help with ASA citations and guidance about other format matters is also available through the following:

 

Modern Language Association (MLA Style)

    

     Widely used in the humanities, this system of citation conventions puts less emphasis on dates than the social sciences systems do and more emphasis on the authorship of materials, including those found on various types of Web sites. MLA style places authors’ names in parenthesis in the paper's text, but not publication dates. Full citations are presented on a "works cited" list, which is alphabetized by the authors’ surnames and included on a separate sheet at the end of the paper.

     Detailed guidance about using MLA style is available in the handbook for First-Year English. You may also wish to consult the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 6th ed. (2003). Several copies are available in the reference area of Raynor Library for library use only, and a few are available in the stacks for check out. Be sure you are looking at the sixth edition because it has the most recent information about citing electronic resources.

Online help with MLA citations along with guidance about citing and other format matters is available through the following:

  • Build a Citation, Signpost at Raynor Memorial Library

*This page has been translated into Romanian by Alexander Ovsov at http://webhostinggeeks.com/science/parenthetical-citations-rm.

 
 
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Page Last Modified: November 9, 2011

  For suggestions and corrections, please email
Dr. Rebecca Nowacek, Associate Professor of English
Director of the Ott Memorial Writing Center, 240 Raynor Library (414.288.5542)
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